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      为什么有那么多书要教我们如何阅读?

      2017-11-7 13:54| 编辑: admin| 查看: 12342| 评论: 0

      哈罗德·布鲁姆也许表达过这样的意思:如果一个人能活到一百四十岁,他就不用这样笨拙地给我们开列西方经典的书单了。于是,他帮我们读完了那些有趣——但用他的标准来看没什么营养——的“垃圾读品”后,将这些玩意儿pass,然后给我们剩下一堆咬牙切齿才能下咽的精神压缩饼干。

      我们能理解布鲁姆的苦心,习惯了文化快餐的人,对所有需要头脑和耐性去揣摩和学习的东西都避之唯恐不及,有多少人愿意努力掌握“古老的语言”去和永恒的经典直接对话呢?

      为什么读?

      阅读需要理由吗?法国作家夏尔·丹齐格在《为什么读书》中便为读者列出了许许多多理由:“为了爱而读书”、“为了憎恨而读书”、“为了书名而读书”,甚至“为了手淫而读书”、“为了已经读过而读书”、“为了恶习而读书”,这些所谓的“理由”杂糅成了一本书,仿佛在向我们堂而皇之地证明作者就是为了凑本书来骗稿费才读书。其实夏尔·丹齐格是一位阅读的精英主义者,他的口味之刁绝不输哈罗德·布鲁姆,翻来覆去引用的都是福楼拜、普鲁斯特、菲茨杰拉德之类的文学大家。如果你不是一个爱读书的人,怎么可能会有兴趣看这本书?依我看,这本书的作者就是想和精英阅读的同好们对对暗号。

      《为什么读书:毫无用处的万能文学手册》,[法]夏尔·丹齐格著,阎雪梅译,广西师范大学出版社

      丹齐格自己也知道,热爱阅读其实没有什么理由,只是同样的意思,卡尔维诺或许表达得更漂亮。他在《为什么读经典》中,为经典下了十四个定义,但言及“为什么读经典”时,“唯一可以列举出来讨他们欢心的理由是,读经典作品总比不读好”。他还煞有介事地引用苏格拉底的一则轶事为证:“当毒药正在准备中的时候,苏格拉底正在用长笛练习一支曲调?!庥惺裁从媚??’有人问他?!辽傥宜狼翱梢匝罢庵??!闭獾比坏扔诿挥谢卮?。但我们因此倒是感受到卡尔维诺对阅读至死方休的热爱。

      《为什么读经典》,[意大利]伊塔洛·卡尔维诺著,黄灿然、李桂蜜译,译林出版社

      如何读?

      “你先要找个舒适的姿势:坐着、仰着、蜷着或者躺着;仰卧、侧卧或者俯卧;坐在小沙发上或是躺在长沙发上,坐在摇椅上,或者仰在躺椅上、睡椅上;躺在吊床上,如果你有张吊床的话;或者躺在床上,当然也可躺在被窝里;你还可以头朝下拿大顶,像练瑜伽功……”(卡尔维诺《寒冬夜行人》)

      读者想要习得的,当然不是阅读的姿势而是方法的知识。两位美国学者莫提默·J. 艾德勒和查尔斯·范多伦编写的这本《如何阅读一本书》,因为书名的“直指人心”而成为阅读方法书的首选。 该书把阅读分为四个层次:娱乐消遣(基础阅读)、获取资讯(检视阅读)、加强理解(分析阅读)、增长心智(主题阅读),并着重于第三层次的具体分析,的确极为系统地介绍了阅读的方法,系统到读者准会回忆起中小学时语文老师让我们总结中心思想、段落大意的日子,以至于书名完全可以改为《如何解剖一本书》,因此非常适用于理科头脑阅读的社科、理工类书籍。一部文学作品可经不起本书作者这样的“大卸八块”。

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