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      牛学智谈唐荣尧:对写作同质化的克服与摈弃

      2017-6-22 16:30| 编辑: admin| 查看: 21141| 评论: 0

      唐荣尧的写作包括写青海的《青海之书》,写青海湖的《一滴圣蓝青海湖》,写黄河的《大河远上》,写贺兰山的《贺兰山——一部立着的史诗》,都视野宏大、结构讲究、语言灵动,预定的目标明确。

      认真的读者对现阶段的人文阅读,恐怕都有雷同的感觉。这种大面积同质化选题、同质化价值诉求,已经威胁到人文的传布和接受。人们因而觉得大同小异、不过如此,而对人文价值本身厌倦,甚至排斥。而唐荣尧的写作,不但反复求助于田野调查,而且还自觉地给自己压担子。有了丰富的田野调查经验,他自己的局限也就自然得到了更新和补充;有了自觉的责任意识,被打开的个人眼界,必然有了更加丰富的社会内容和明确的文化价值取向。在这个前提下,面对一个自然景点或历史遗迹,便不再是游客一惊一乍的感喟和嘻嘻哈哈“到此一游”的感官满足,而是焕发了景点和历史遗迹应有的厚重感,建立了一种积极的文化秩序。所以,虽然他的书大体属于历史范畴,但因为人文诉求有别,历史论述或写作也就面目不同。不但与自己的前一部不同,也与别人的相关著述不同,很好地克服了写作的同质化问题。

      面对普遍的“室内游戏”式想象和写作风气,唐荣尧信奉脚板的实证主义作风与不断把对象陌生化的实践,扩展了主体性经验。他写作的启示也在完善主体性世界上。他写《西夏王朝》时,面对的是西夏近200年历史、经济、文化、政治、教育和艺术兴衰的轨迹,他的主体性也就成了西夏这个主体的体验者、承受者和铭记者。他写《贺兰山》时,贺兰山的历史、地理、人文,便成了他既有主体性经验和知识的镜子。只有打破自我认知局限,才能理想地进入到贺兰山的文化实质层面。这时,他的主体性完成得怎样的问题,便取决于贺兰山这座山的主体性。同样,他写《大河远上》时,读者阅读的不再是唐荣尧的自我世界,而是黄河子语——海、湖、渠、淖、泊、湾及其话语方式和人文习惯,也才会联想到为什么只有花儿、秦腔、信天游、黄河号子、唢呐、大秧歌等,才是黄河的声音。

      相比之下,不同题材一个嘴脸,不同历史渊源一个价值趣味的论述或写作,之所以看得多了必然会产生味同嚼蜡的感觉,是因为写作者是以同一个主体性尺度来丈量的。在那个世界里,主体性非但没有保持足够的沉默,反而一定程度上还变成了某种代言者,严重压抑了对象世界的多声部。这不是对传统精华的发掘,而是对传统精华的删减,张扬了局限的个体趣味。

      唐荣尧的写作在话语方式上积极变革,进一步增加了此类很容易自我重复写作的新颖性,也具有启示意义。当然,以散文化语言、创作心态进行的研究或写作实践,唐荣尧不是第一人?;迫视畹摹锻蚶迥辍贰吨泄罄贰肪筒凰盗?,当前的例子很多。比如葛兆光的《中国思想史》,就是散文随笔化语言写成的;李敬泽兼有小说家细节、散文家跳跃和批评家严谨的《小春秋》《青鸟故事集》;彭程读书纪言、评论与经典笔记等文体整饬融合的著作《纸页上的足印》等都是。当然,这种话语方式不都好用,甚至用得不好,反遭人唾弃。比如,某些写作因为无视基本历史和文化常识,肆意放大自我感知,产生了不好的影响,有时也到了误导读者的地步。但唐荣尧想象也罢,用史料知识也罢,抑或借重前人研究成果也罢,都很慎重,基本上是有一分证据说一分话。他散文化语言的运用,只是相对于学院派的四堵高墙和教案式的死知识梳理来说的。从这个层面来读他的著作,觉得他其实更了解这个时代人们呼唤务实、真实、实在的接受心理。

      说了这么多赞美的话,下面谈点我的保留意见。整体来看,唐荣尧的写作有明显的文化传统主义倾向。这集中体现在他几乎每部书的框架结构上。他喜欢用某某年的某一天,当谁谁谁跟往常一样干什么的时候,或我想着如下一幅场景之时,然后带进要叙述的对象。结尾时,总喜欢以“挽歌”“感叹”式话语方式结束。对于他写作或研究的特殊对象,现实可能就是这样,是一个终结了的王朝或事物。但作为一个人文研究者或写作者,没必要把自己的想象和智慧按部就班封锁在现实形式上或服膺于《百年孤独》一类小说叙事的框架。有时候最珍贵的追问,或许恰恰应该在对象世界结束或事物终结的地方开始。如果以文化现代性思想衡量,结束的地方、终结的事物,是不是已通过其他方式转化成别的形式了?而这个其他新生的方式,虽然有时并不显性存在,但其中是不是孕育着人们新的诉求和价值期许?无论确有,或确无,作为理性思考的作者,都不宜用道德感伤的方式来看待对象世界,如果这样看待了,那反而是思想的贫乏。

      总之,唐荣尧写作的启示意义值得进一步阐发。因为他不是一个人的写作或研究风格问题,而是关系到今天时代怎样研究或写作的问题。

      (作者:牛学智,单位:宁夏社科院文化研究所)

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