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      《战国策》中久为传诵的名篇——《冯谖客孟尝君》赏析

      2018-2-11 09:34| 编辑: admin| 查看: 37907| 评论: 0

        本文选自《战国策.齐策四》,题目为原编者所加。谖又作煖,《史记.孟尝君列传》作“驩”,音皆同。战国时期,各国统治者都面临着内政、外交和军事等方面的急迫问题,需要大批高才秀士来为自己服务,于是在统治者和权贵中出现了罗致人才、尊贤养士的风气,士阶层的地位得到空前提高,士者有了大展身手的充分机会。本文记叙了策士冯谖以“狡兔三窟”的计谋帮助孟尝君转危为安巩固了政治地位的历史故事,展现了冯谖过人的才智,表现了孟尝君礼贤下士、容人、任人的政治胸怀。

        齐国有个叫冯谖的人,贫穷不能养活自己,便请人对孟尝君说,愿意寄居在他门下成为一个食客。孟尝君问:“客人有什么特长?”冯谖回答:“没有什么特长?!泵铣⒕治剩骸翱腿擞惺裁幢臼??”冯谖回答:“没有什么本事?!泵铣⒕α艘恍?,还是收留了他,说:“好吧?!?/div>

        文章从冯谖初至孟尝君门下作食客时写起。冯谖初见孟尝君,孟尝君问他有“何好”、“何能”,冯谖的回答是“客无好也”、“客无能也”。这种故作平庸的回答,给人留下了一种难以捉摸和莫测高深的印象。文章一开始就写得很有吸引力。

        门下办事的人认为孟尝君看不起他,给他吃粗劣的饭菜,给他的是下士的地位。

        冯谖在孟尝君处住下不久,就倚着柱子,弹着随身佩带的剑把,边弹边唱:“长剑,你还是和我一起回去吧,在这里吃不到鱼!”孟尝君门下办事的人告诉了孟尝君。孟尝君说:“给他鱼吃吧,就像有资格吃鱼的门客一样?!保ò淳勺⑺担好铣⒕拿趴头秩?,在饭食上也不同,上等吃肉,中等吃鱼,下等吃菜。)又住了不久后,冯谖又弹他的长剑,唱道:“长剑,我们还是一起回去吧,出门的时候没有车坐!”左右办事的人于是嘲笑他,以此告诉了孟尝君。孟尝君于是说:“给他安排车子,就像那些有车坐的人一样?!狈脍斡谑亲琶铣⒕急傅某底?,高举着剑,到他朋友家去做客拜访,说:“孟尝君把我当成正式的门客?!庇止痪?,他又弹起了剑,唱道:“长剑,我们归去吧,我无力赡养我家的人?!泵铣⒕畔碌娜硕己苎岫袼?,以为他的这种要求是不合理的,贪得无厌,孟尝君于是问左右的人:“冯谖这人家中是否有亲人?”左右的人回答说:“他有一个老母亲?!泵铣⒕谑桥扇烁腿コ缘?、用的,使他不缺乏。于是冯谖不再弹剑并唱了。

        冯谖三次用了弹铗作歌的方式,向孟尝君提出生活待遇上的要求,而且一次比一次高,以致引起周围人的“笑之”、“恶之”,但他却我行我素,旁若无人,直到孟尝君都满足了他——也就是孟尝君“爱士”的诚意得到了考验,他才不复歌。这里生动地写出了策士冯谖不卑不亢,异于??偷钠嫣胤绮?。

        当然,这一切并不是冯谖的主要历史事迹,也不是文章的中心意思所在,但作者着意首先写出这一切还是有重要作用的。已是他写出了冯谖后来愿为孟尝君竭尽才智来效力的原因——所谓“士为知己者死”,正是当时作为策士的道德信条;而是把冯谖这人物的个性写得更鲜明,形象更丰满,更有奇士的风采。

        后来孟尝君出告示,问他门下的客人:“谁熟悉算账之类的事,能为我到薛地去收债务呢?”冯谖看了告示后就写上自己的名字,说自己能做到。孟尝君奇怪地问:“冯谖是谁呢?”左右门人回答道:“这就是那个弹着长铗唱‘长剑我们回去吧’的那个人?!泵铣⒕ψ潘担骸拔已恼飧隹腿斯皇怯斜玖斓?,我招待了他,至今还未见过他呢?!本桶阉肜聪嗉?,表示谢罪地说:“我为许多烦事所劳累,许多需要我思考的东西把我的头脑都搞昏乱了,而我的本性又很懦弱无能,沉溺于国家的事情,得罪了先生,先生不以为羞辱,而你还有意思愿意为我到薛地去收债吗?”冯谖回答说:“愿意去?!庇谑窃级巳兆幼急噶顺底?,治理了行装,载着券契出发了。临走时,他向孟尝君辞行说:“我把薛地债务完成后,买些什么东西回来呢?”孟尝君就说:“你看我们家没有的东西就给我带回来?!狈脍吻懦道吹搅搜Φ?,派当地的官吏把该还债务的人都找了来,都来对证债券,全部都核对了一遍以后,就站了起来,假托孟尝君的命令,用债务的款项赐给了百姓们,还把债券都烧掉了,于是老百姓都高喊万岁,感谢孟尝君。冯谖就驱着车马不停顿地赶回了齐国,孟尝君为他回来得如此迅速而奇怪,衣服穿得很整齐地来见他,问他:“债都收完了吗?你怎么回来得这么快呢?”冯谖回答说:“我走时你不是嘱咐我吗?说‘看我家少的东西’。我私下计议了一下,你的宫中什么好东西没有呢,珍宝多的是,聚积在一起,狗马等玩物也不少,在你身后美人也无数;你家里所缺少的,只有义,我私下里已经用你的债券为你买了义?!泵铣⒕退担骸澳愀衣蚧匾迨窃趺椿厥??”冯谖说:“你有一个小小的封地薛,但是你不知道爱你的百姓,而像商人一样向老百姓牟取利息;我私下里假托了你的命令已经把你的债券都赐给老百姓了,而且把债券都烧掉了,老百姓很高兴,就欢呼你万岁,这就是我为你买来的义?!泵铣⒕撕懿桓咝?,就说:“好吧,你不要说了?!?/div>

        满一年后,齐闵王对孟尝君说:“我可不敢用先王的大臣作为自己的大臣?!泵铣⒕坏们巴约旱姆庖匮Φ?。距离薛地还不到百里,薛地的民众扶老携幼,夹道欢迎孟尝君的到来。孟尝君回顾身来对冯谖说:“先生上次所说的‘义’,在今天终于看到作用了?!?/div>

        冯谖说:“狡猾机灵的兔子有三个洞穴,才能避免死患。现在有了一个洞穴,还不是高枕无忧的时候。请让我为你在开凿三个洞穴?!泵铣⒕璺脍纬滴迨?,黄金五百斤,向西来到魏国首都梁。对惠王说:“齐国放逐它的大臣孟尝君,这对诸侯来说是个机会,先迎接他的国家,孟尝君能使它国富兵强?!庇谑?,惠王把最高的位置(相位)空出来,把原来的相国调任为上将军,派使者带黄金千斤,车百辆,去聘请孟尝君。冯谖先赶回来,告诫孟尝君说:“千金,很重的礼啊,百辆,很显赫啊,齐国大概听到这个消息了?!被萃跏拐咄等?,孟尝君坚决推辞不去赴任。

        齐王听说了这件事,君臣们都很恐惧,连忙派遣太傅送来黄金千斤,套四匹马的会有文采的车子二辆,佩剑一把,写信向孟尝君谢罪说:“寡人不好,遭受祖宗降下的灾祸,被奉迎的臣子所迷惑,得罪了您,寡人不值得帮助,希望你顾及先王的宗庙,能不能回国来治理万民?”冯谖劝告孟尝君说:“向齐王要求先人的祭器,在薛地建立齐王的宗庙?!弊诿砺涑?,冯谖回来报告孟尝君说:“三个洞穴都已经完成,您可以高枕无忧快乐地过日子了?!?/div>

        孟尝君在齐国担任国相数十年,没有细微的祸事发生,靠的是冯谖的计谋??!

        冯谖为孟尝君焚券买义的一段,是全文的中心情节。这一段通过对冯谖言语举止的描写,通过一起一伏的情节,对冯谖的思想性格作了十分深刻的刻画,而且充满了引人入胜的故事性。

        从思想内容上说,这段文字忠实地记述和颂扬了冯谖的政治卓见。冯谖的所谓“焚券市义”,实际上是一种争取民心的活动。文章写冯谖的明智远虑,就在于他比较清醒地认识到,一个统治者尽管一时可以占有大量的财富,但如果失去民心,则是一件非常危险的事。具体到孟尝君身上,他看到孟尝君虽然势位煊赫,但如若“不抚爱子其民”,一旦在统治者内部倾轧中失势,就将无立足之地。冯谖的“焚券市义”的动机,虽仍属为统治者孟尝君着想,但也体现出他对人民力量的认识。文章通过记述和颂扬冯谖的事迹而透露出来的这方面的思想,是与当时进步的重民思想,民本思想相一致的。

        其次,这段文字写得非常曲折、细致,富有故事性。它基本由三个生动的情节组成,即冯谖署记、矫名焚券、市义复命。文章首先写当孟尝君招募去薛地收债的人时,冯谖脱颖而出,“署曰能”,这使孟尝君感到意外,同时还为自己最初未能重视他而感到内疚。文章用“孟尝君笑曰:‘客果有能也?!崩醇疵铣⒕运男郎秃托湃?。但接着写冯谖领命之后却焚券而归,结果又使孟尝君大失所望,极为不满。而直到一年以后,孟尝君罢相归薛地时,才又以外地感到冯谖眼光长远,果然是能士。情节是人物性格的历史。文章正是通过上述具体情节的描写,把冯谖的机智、果敢和出众的政治识见,生动地表现了出来。如文中写冯谖临去薛地时,问收债回来买什么东西而归,孟尝君随口回答说:“视我家所寡有者?!贝鹫呶扌?,而问者有意。冯谖正是抓住了孟尝君的这句答话,而为实现自己的奇谋——“矫命市义”,创造了条件,并在回来复命时,使自己完全占据主动地位。作者用这一微小的问答细节,非常深刻地显示出策士冯谖在行动上处处占有脚步的机智。冯谖至薛收债一节,文字描写简洁扼要,但却是表现他的才干、胆识的重要一笔?!扒?,使吏召诸民当偿者,悉来合券,券遍合,起矫命,以责赐诸民,因烧其券,民呼万岁。长驱到齐,晨而求见?!背浞窒允境龇脍未硎虑榈墓侠?,有胆有识,敢作敢为的性格。下文归来复命一节,写冯谖对孟尝君的那番对话,滔滔不绝的言辞,理直气壮的气势,充分显示出冯谖作为一个策士的机警、从容、多辞善辩的风度。

        “焚券市义”一事,仅仅是冯谖“狡兔三窟”中的一窟,因为薛地是孟尝君的封地,可以说是他的根据地,是他的老巢。另外二窟,一是帮助游说魏惠王,使惠王重金聘请孟尝君,给齐王造成政治压力,引起齐王对孟尝君的重视,迫使齐王对孟尝君官复原职。二是在薛地建立齐王宗庙,以求长远?;し獾?,加重薛地的地位。这一整套组合拳,巩固了孟尝君在齐国的政治地位,充分表现了冯谖的过人智慧。

        《冯谖客孟尝君》是《战国策》中久为传诵的名篇。文章以曲折的情节,抑扬顿挫的文笔、烘托手法、鲜明地刻画了一个有才干、有智谋的策士的形象。

        本文的主要艺术特色,是用精雕细琢的手法,迂回曲折的情节,写出了战国时代一个有奇谋异策的士人的形象,生动地描写了他的异乎常人的智谋和作为一个所谓“奇士”的风采。
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