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      现代诗的经典化:过滤 ·净化 ·提纯

      2018-2-9 09:38| 编辑: admin| 查看: 26669| 评论: 0

      现代诗接受的多端变频与海量产出特点,连同不断看涨的“自我推销”,使得现代诗的“可靠性”经常处于“游移”之中。故而现代诗接受的正?;敫咧柿渴迪?,少不了要依赖不可或缺的经典化过程。现代诗的潮水般涨落总是比其他文类更加泥沙俱下,鱼目混珠,也由于接受中良莠难辨,薰莸同器,众多“误读”成为普遍“行规”而司空见惯,这就加剧现代诗接受不断要重临严峻环节——筛选与淘汰的反复工序,有如安装在自来水管道的过滤装置,经由各种软化、磁化、矿化、电解、膜分离手段,达到水质的净化、提纯。

      现在,人们一谈起经典,几乎不约而同要提及卡尔维诺关于经典的14种定义。通俗地说,经典就是能够经得住历史检验的传世之作,具有恒久的价值。时间(历史)长度几乎成了经典取舍的第一个尺度, 但历史维度只是“金标准”的一半,如果历史维度加上空间维度(区域、流派、社团、风格等)的横向参数比较与“监控”,经典价值无疑增加了保险。但是,时间维度与空间维度的“合议庭”,最终授权还得回到读者的“陪审团”,确切地说,经典的确证,取决于历史化的庞大的陪审团的“裁决”。

      新诗、现代诗,其经典化过程依然“山重水复”,十分吃力。经常是,遴选新诗、现代诗的经典尺度十分明确,当触到“边界”时却变得模糊;经典的内涵十分饱满,外延竟相当疏离;经典的理念不可撼动,但操作层面上却“节外生枝”。这或许可以归结为现代诗这一精灵鬼的刁钻习性:产量巨大,良莠难辨;多头标准,“范式”走样;超速嬗替、频率过快,无以在短时期形成共享;尤其接受胃口多变,仁智各见,众口难调,导致相对主义到处泛滥。各种干扰因素:资本的、情谊的、权利的、程序的、观念的、话语的加入,造成种种波动与质变,这也是当代新诗、现代诗经典化反复折腾的重要原因。

      中国新诗有不少所谓经典,因意识形态助力而鹊声四起,一时走红,但最终还得落入明日黄花的归途。历史文化权重大大超乎审美权重的不良后果,势必导致后来接二连三的“翻案”;长期被埋没的杰出文本(如穆旦《诗八首》),最后还是众望所归,重见天日。最有意思的是诗人的自我淘汰,铁面无私:1925年版《志摩的诗》收入《沙杨那拉十八首》,3年之后重印时,竟勇敢毙掉前面17首,只留最后一首,终成正果。同样,《康桥再会吧》再版时也被诗人果断砍掉,另作《再别康桥》——整整比《康桥再会吧》减少近五分之四篇幅。试想,要是徐志摩不对自己自戕自杀,“康桥”的流水还会流传至今吗?

      有鉴于此,近年《扬子江诗刊》汲取经典“变数”的教训,努力进行一场重建经典的努力。例如对应于古诗十九首,它首开《新诗十九首》的筛选、甄拔。当时间积累到一定长度时,相信在各种经典“网眼”的筛选下,经典、准经典的“名单”有望更具说服力地浮出水面。现代新诗的经典化绝对不是简单的加减,它既是历史化过程,又是当代化进程。

      一般而言,经典化主要通过三大渠道:教化普及、传播推广、遴选到位。三者相辅相成,缺一不可。而其中涉及诸多具体环节:选本、年鉴、教材、史料、奖项、教学等相互促进,形成各种分力的总和。其中,可能某几种分力过于羸弱,被某几种强大分力“吃掉”,可能某几种分力势均力敌,最后会取得某种妥协的“平均值”;可能某一个绝好的历史机遇,一下子凝集而迅速提升始料未及的价值效应,并且放大了结果;可能某一种权威机制,有意无意遮蔽了一个伟大的生命;也可能是萌芽中的经典,藏之“深山”,经过漫长的耐心等待、最终才熬出头来。有人会忧虑:过早、过分的当代化,因多种因素干扰,会冲击经典的真正形成。其实这些都是杞人忧天,我们要坚信历史的总体合力,具有自洽性的清洁能力,最终的经典化会越来越接近公正。

      经典化有各种手段,多数时候采用的是模糊化的方式。近20年来,武汉大学王兆鹏团队发现定性分析容易产生某些偏袒弊端,遂改为较客观的计量分析。借鉴客观计量,排除“印象”、“感受”、“直觉”带来的人为争讼,提供更令人信服的参数,作为有说服力的依据,比如文本进入视频次数、朗诵次数、选本次数、评论次数、教科书次数、学位论文次数、研讨次数、播送次数、转载次数、引用次数等等,完全是可以做到的。尽管当代时间流变短暂,量化数据积累单薄,琐细繁杂,不过只要有坐冷板凳的功夫,借助互联网技术,总会在资料与数据的实证中,避免主观干扰与非诗干扰。再比如引入相关的“大数据概念”:“一些数据,在传统观念看来与所要研究的问题可能毫不相干,但是许多不相干的信息在一起就会形成集成效应,会形成你所想象不到的因果关系和证据链?!苯耙蚬叵岛椭ぞ萘础蹦扇刖浠摹凹焖鳌毕低?,不啻是一个重要途径。具体可采纳的方法还有:函数(有序变化的关系);概率(随机发生的可能性数值);变量(无序变化中的频率、平均值、离散度);以及坐标、几何结构图形、表格等等。

      经典化过程,参照温德尔·V·哈里斯的理论概括,归结为7种功能:1.提供范本、理想和灵感,2.传播思想遗产,3.创造共同的参照系,4.作家与经典的互惠,5.将理论合法化,6.具有某种需要解释的历史化力量,7.起到了文化多元化的功能。而这些重要的功能似可聚集为霍布斯鲍姆的一句名言,即“发明的传统”。它通常呈现为一整套公开或私下接受的规则所控制的实践活动,具有形式化和仪式化特征;它标明了某种与过去的联系,但这种连续性往往是人为的,主要是为了应对变化了的新形势;它在具有重大历史意义的过去中被植入了新的传统。

      不妨说,经典就是否定与发现的传统,亦即发明的传统。这样的发明在闻一多《读骚杂记》中有一段妙语:“一个历史人物的偶像化的程度,往往是与时间成正比的,时间愈久,偶像化的程度愈深,而去事实也愈远。如果说历史人物的偶像化,可能会因时间愈久去事实愈远,那么真正的经典作品的接受史则恰恰相反,时间愈久,对意蕴的阐发则会愈丰富愈深入?!恳皇贝苣茉诠サ奈按笞髌分蟹⑾帜持中露??!彼导噬仙婕熬浠摹岸芾怼?。这也是近年有关“批评的经典性重估”与“群选性的经典更新”的讨论。

      古典诗歌的经典化基本不成为问题,因为它早已拥有稳定的审美规范与接受规范。而现代新诗经典化一直处于变动之中,问题多多,笔者借此补充两条,也接受大家的批评:

      一、现代诗经典化可同时建立两大流通渠道。一种是大众层面,呈现相对通俗、浅近的流行色;另一种是精英层面,对应于有一定诗歌训练、具备前沿、尖端历练的“无限少数人”。由于大众与精英、通俗与先锋,已经无法同时满足两种差距甚大的胃口,故而现代诗经典化最好考虑在诗歌王国实行“一国两制”——构建大众版经典与精英版经典,这样的版图应该更符合诗歌的接受现实。

      二、现代诗经典化受到时空的掌控。理想的愿景是:时间上,考虑经典的时间“刻度”须有所标示,像好酒的年代记号一样,比如得经历二三十年时段才能跨过“资格赛”,经历半世纪的才算“正式注册”,以此来杜绝各种“炒作”,和你追我赶的短效“排行榜”??占渖?,则要确立越经历不同层次的读者的共同认可,越具经典成色,以此为时间性多加一道保险。

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