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      《秦晋肴之战》人物赏析

      2018-2-8 09:31| 编辑: admin| 查看: 32119| 评论: 0

      人物赏析:
        蹇叔:老成持重,远见卓识,忠心耿耿
        弦高:忠心爱国,机警灵活
        先轸:多谋善断,忠直刚烈
        晋襄公:优柔寡断,纳谏如流
        秦穆公:刚愎自用,知错能改
        王孙满:观察敏锐,聪颖过人
        细致分析:

        秦穆公的刚愎自用、知过能改,蹇叔的老成持重、远见卓识,原轸的忠直多谋、勇武暴烈,弦高的忠心爱国,机警灵活、王孙满的观察敏锐、聪颖过人......都给人留下了深刻的印象。而这些人物的思想性格又是通过他们自身的富有个性化的语言动作表现出来的。
        常为人称道的蹇叔的三段话,内容都是直接或间接地谏诤秦穆公,但因说话对象不同,语气大有区别,符合特定的语境,使蹇叔的形象更为真实可亲、丰满完美。
        原轸在崤之战前与栾枝的论辩,显示了他的辩才和忠心,而在崤之战后又公开地与文嬴发生争执,并当着襄公的面“不顾而唾”,表现出他性格的另一方面──粗鲁暴烈,竟不顾君臣之礼。另一方面,可以看出襄公对先轸还是很尊重的,这也是为什么晋在文公死后仍能不失霸业。另一方面,春秋时期君主对大夫们的礼可见一斑。
        至于弦高、皇武子、孟明的外交辞令,也是各肯特色;弦高于委婉中露锋芒,暗示郑国已知悉秦军偷袭企图,早已作好战斗准备;皇武子于幽默中寓严肃,导致“杞子奔齐,逢孙、杨孙奔宋”;孟明于谦卑中藏杀机,表现出三年后将兴师报仇的决心。

        崤之战基本信息:

        秦穆公凭着日渐强盛的国力,早欲争霸中原,而东出道路却为晋国所扼。周襄王二十四年(公元前628),秦穆公得知郑、晋国君新丧,欲出兵越晋境偷袭郑国。主政大夫蹇叔认为,师出无名,且孤军远道袭郑,必为晋国所乘,不主张出兵。穆公不听,执意袭郑。晋襄公及其谋臣为维护霸业,决心乘机打击秦国。秦军往返必经崤山,而此山峻壁绝涧,唯东、西二崤间有一蜿蜒小道。晋国确定先不惊动秦军以骄其志,待其疲惫回师,于崤山险地设伏歼灭之。
        十二月,秦将孟明视、西乞术、白乙丙率军出雍都(今陕西凤翔南),穿越崤山隘道,偷越晋国南境,于次年二月抵滑(今河南偃师东南)。恰遇郑国商人弦高赴周贩牛,弦高断定秦军必是袭郑,即假郑君之命,犒劳秦师。孟明视等见弦高犒师,以为郑已有备,不再前进,灭滑而还。
        晋国侦知秦师返归,即命先轸率军秘密赶至崤山,并联络当地姜戎,埋伏于隘道两侧。晋军为主力,击秦军前部;以姜戎断其退路。秦军因东出途中未遇任何抵抗而傲慢松懈,孟明视等不作防范,率军径入崤山。四月十三,晋军见秦军全部进入设伏地域,突然发起猛攻,晋襄公身着丧服督战,全歼秦军,俘孟明视等三将。
        此战,晋军针对秦军政治上的被动、作战指导上的侥幸,选择有利时机、有利地形实施攻击,取得阻遏秦国东向争霸的决定性胜利。
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