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      《曹刿论战》赏析

      2018-2-7 11:13| 编辑: admin| 查看: 26810| 评论: 0

      本篇选文又题作“齐鲁长勺之战”或“长勺之战”。这一战事发生在鲁庄公十年(前684),是齐桓公即位后向鲁国发动的第二次战争。 

      前此两年,齐桓公(公子小白)与其庶兄公子纠曾进行过激烈的争夺君位的斗争。当时篡君夺位的公孙无知(齐襄公堂弟)已被杀,齐国一时无君,因此避难于鲁国的公子纠和避难于莒国的公子小白都争相赶回齐国。鲁庄公支持公子纠主国,亲自率军护送公子纠返齐,并派管仲拦击、刺杀公子小白。然而鲁国的谋划没有成功,公子小白已出乎意料地抢先归齐,取得了君位。齐桓公即位后当即反击鲁军,两军交战于乾时(齐地),齐胜鲁败。乘兵胜之威,齐桓公胁迫鲁国杀掉了公子纠。齐桓公虽在其庶兄的血泊中巩固了权位,但对鲁国却一直怨恨难平,因此转年春便再次发兵攻鲁,进行军事报复和武力惩罚。本篇所记即是这次在鲁地长勺展开的战事。

      这是一篇文字简短明快、内蕴丰富的记事散文。全文大致可分为三个段落。

      第一段写战前,写曹刿请见庄公并与之讨论进行的政治准备和用兵作战的条件。面对齐国的进犯,曹刿是主动请求晋见庄公的,作者记了他与“乡人”的一番对话。乡人善意地劝说他不要去参与“肉食者”的事,曹刿却坦直地回答:“肉食者鄙,未能远谋?!薄叭馐痴摺笔窍喽杂凇稗绞痴摺倍缘?,显然,这是以饭食精粗对执政贵族和平民所作的简单划分。与乡人所表现出来的对“肉食者”和国事的冷漠态度相反,曹刿表示出对“肉食者”的不信任并积极要求参与国家的决策?!叭馐痴弑伞币盐敝剿っ?,那一次“公丧戎路,传乘而归。秦子、梁子以公旗辟于下道,是以皆止”(《左传》庄公九年)。如今齐军压境,岂可再让国家败在他们手中?接下去,曹刿与鲁庄公围绕“何以战”的论题进行了严肃的对话。鲁庄公心无成算,对曹刿郑重的询问作不出爽快切要的回答。他先提出“衣食”的分配,“弗敢专也,必以分人”;又说到神灵的祭祀,“牺牲玉帛,弗敢加也,必以信”。前者不是普遍施予民众的实惠,无关战事全局;后者是例行的宗教性礼节,并非对民众的真诚许诺,因此二者都为曹刿所否定。唯有最后在庄公提出治理讼狱“必以情”的一点,曹刿认为“忠之属也”还算是尽心务实的一项,认定“可以一战”,并随即提出直接参战的要求。

      第二段写两军交战的实况。这一部分作者笔墨不多,但是鲁军如何进攻、追击,齐军如何败绩、溃逃的情形历历在目。曹刿适时选择出击、追击的时机,他采取了后发制敌、以智取胜的战术。当齐军未动鲁庄公急于抢先攻击时,曹刿制止道:“未可?!敝敝疗刖闹?,军士勇气衰竭,他才表示:“可矣?!甭尘还淖髌彀芰似刖?。在追击的问题上,曹刿确察虚实而后动,制止了庄公的鲁莽,待下车察看齐军车辙的轨迹、登轼瞭望齐军麾帜旌旗之后,才果断地表示:“可矣?!贝苏铰尘蠡袢?。

      第三段,用补叙笔法写战役之后由曹刿论证战术的选择和克敌制胜的原因。这部分实际是全文的重点,它展示了曹刿作战指挥智勇双全的特点?!胺蛘?,勇气也?!痹诖?,曹刿所说“勇气”,是战时士气的集中表现,是军士临战时的激情和果敢拼杀的昂扬斗志。齐军三鼓,鲁军并不应鼓而动,齐军激发起来的勇气没有得到相对的呼应,反而很快由亢奋转为衰惫。曹刿抓住了这种士气和心理变化的有利时机号令鲁军,一举得胜。此外警惕“大国难测”,不忘实地侦察,确证齐军是败溃而非诈退,也是扩大战果、稳操胜券的重要原因。这段文字是从道理上对第二段战事实况的分析和论述。

      从军事角度说,长勺之战所包含的内容是很丰富的。它着重说明了战略防御的基本原则,正确掌握这些原则即可达到以弱胜强的目的。这一战例历来受到军事家的重视,毛泽东也曾在《中国革命战争的战略问题》中对长勺之战作了军事学的评论。

      从文学角度看,这又是一篇记述战争的佳作。作者取材精到,构思落笔立意高远,既于叙事中撮取历史经验,又于行文中生动刻画人物形象。曹刿是作者着意刻画的主要人物。他具有卓越的军事智谋和指挥才能,能在瞬息万变的战争中沉着、冷静、果断地号令军队,曹刿就是长勺胜战的权威和统帅。作者对他的称美赞扬,含蓄于精心的描写之中。文中多记曹刿简短、果敢的言行:“请见”、“问战”、“请从”、于战斗中两置可否……这一系列活动表现出一名出身下层而深谋远虑的谋士的精明干练。作者巧妙地运用了比照映衬的修辞技法。以曹刿与“乡人”的对比突出曹刿抗敌御侮的责任感和护卫宗国的政治热忱。从曹刿与鲁庄公的对比中,以庄公的驽钝、浮躁反衬曹刿的机敏、持重。如果说,作者有意无意使鲁庄公出丑,证明了“肉食者鄙”的断言,那么也正是借此才使曹刿的聪明才智得到更理想的表现。

      本文的语言,无论是叙述还是人物对话,都极为简洁精炼,表意说理,通达晓畅。行文中散句、排比、偶句错落有致,增强了叙事写人的生动效果。其中曹刿的语言尤为精彩,如战场上的指挥用语,简短明确,这不仅衬托出战事紧迫无暇论析战争策略,也表现出曹刿思维敏捷和临战时坚定而自信的心态。

      (选自《中国文学鉴赏宝库》,陕西人民教育出版社1995年版)

      (孙绿怡)

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